## Posts

Showing posts from 2014

### Multi-Core Programming with Java

Processors speeds are no longer growing at the rate we've grown accustomed to. Moore's law states that computers double in speed every 18 months. Moore's law is still alive and well, but we just need to find alternate ways to speed up computers. That's where multi-core programming comes into play. The idea behind it is that 2 heads are better than one and in the right situation 2 processors can work on the same problem to solve it twice as fast. Parallel programming is becoming increasingly important these days and there are many different flavors of it including distributed computing, shared memory computing, and GPU computing. Today I am going to focus on shared memory computing, or using multi-core computers rather than many single core computers. This blog post is intended to serve as a beginners guide to parallel programming with Java. It is recommended that the reader have some java experience and is familiar with some of the features of Java 8 (namely lambda expr

### Mathematics and Darts!

In this blog post I am going to talk about one of my favorite math problems. When I first solved this problem, I developed a method that can be generalized to a lot of other similar problems. The problem is as follows: Alice and Bob take turns throwing darts at a dartboard (with Alice going first). At each turn, Alice will try to get it closer to the center than Bob's last throw and vice versa. The game ends when one of the players doesn't get it closer than the other player's previous throw. Alice and Bob are equally skilled at throwing darts and they are guaranteed to hit the dart board. What is the probability that Alice wins? To help you visualize this problem, I created a simple program in Racket (then compiled it to JavaScript using whalesong .) You can visualize the game being played by pressing the Right Arrow Key (make sure the frame is in focus). You can speed up the simulation by pressing the Space Bar (you can pause the simulation by pressing it again.)

### 200th Problem Solved! Today I solved my 200th Project Euler problem! Project Euler is a great website that posts weekly programming challenges. It is a great way to learn a new programming language, master the art of algorithm design, and learn about fascinating math concepts. In light of this milestone, I decided to do some data analysis on my Project Euler progress since I started solving these problems about 2 years ago. The first problem on Project Euler states: If we list all the natural numbers below 10 that are multiples of 3 or 5, we get 3, 5, 6 and 9. The sum of these multiples is 23. Find the sum of all the multiples of 3 or 5 below 1000. I am not going to post any solution to this problem, but instead encourage you to go check out the website and see if you can figure it out! If you think that problem is too easy, don't worry they get harder. I first found out about Project Euler in my second semester as a Freshman. I joined the website and solved my first problem on February 17th, 2013.

### Pattern in Pascal's Triangle Pascal's Triangle is a triangular array of binomial coefficients, and it often arises in counting problems.  In this blog post, I will present a problem that is related to Pascal's triangle and in solving it, I will derive an interesting relationship in Pascal's Triangle that you probably didn't know about. If you randomly walk down $n$ rows of Pascal's Triangle by going down-left or down-right at each step, what is the expected value of the number that you finish on? For example, if $n = 4$, then here are a few possible walks (that all happen to end at 4): Show/Hide Solution Solution The first thing to notice is that the number of ways to walk to any cell in the triangle, is the value of the cell itself!  That's because you can get to any cell by going through either it's left parent or it's right parent, and by the way this triangle is constructed, we know that the value of each cell is the sum of the values of it's two par

### Random Walk on a Complete Graph This is the 4th math problem in a series of math problem blog posts that I am writing about.  I thought of this problem as a challenging weekly problem for math club, and I will present 2 solutions.  I came up with the first solution, and a friend of mine came up with the second solution -- a completely different approach that yielded the same answer. You are randomly walking on a complete graph with $2 n$ vertices. You start at a random vertex and at each time step you transition to a different connected vertex. Let $f(n)$ be the expected number of steps until you've visited exactly $n$ distinct vertices. Find $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{f(n)}{n}$$ For those of you who are not familiar with graph theory, here is a complete graph with 6 vertices: In the context of this problem, you start on one of the circles (it doesn't matter which due to symmetry) and at each time step, you cross one of the lines to a new circle.  Henceforth, I will refer to the circle

### Analyzing Randomly Descending Sequences

Finals week just ended for me so I'm hoping to post some new cool math problems in the next few days.  In this blog post, I present a math problem that is very easy to understand what it is asking, but not so easy to solve.  Regardless, I will present my solution, which yielded a very interesting result. You construct a sequence $k_1, k_2, ..., k_m$ by randomly picking an integer from the set $0 \leq k_1 < n$.  After picking $k_1$, you repeat the process by picking $k_2$ randomly from $0 \leq k_2 < k_1$ and repeat the process until you can no longer pick any numbers (when $k_m = 0$).  Find a function for $f(n)$, where $f(n)$ is the expected value of the length of this sequence. Show/Hide Solution If $n = 3$, then the possible sequences are  $\{ , [1,0], [2,0], [2,1,0] \}$, but these don't all occur with equal probability: $P() = \frac{1}{3}, P([1,0]) = \frac{1}{3}, P([2,0]) = \frac{1}{6}, P([2,1,0]) = \frac{1}{6}$

### Counting Special Non-Descending Sequences In this blog post, I will discuss the solution to a very fascinating math problem that I came up with while pondering challenging math problems. The solution to this problem happens to be a really interesting combinatorics identity, and it can be used to describe some very interesting counting problems (including the number of ways to match parentheses). How many non-descending sequences of integers $a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n$ are there such that $0 \leq a_i < i \: \forall \: i \leq n$? Show/Hide Solution If $n = 1$, the only possible sequence is $a_1 = 0$.  Similarly, for $n = 2$, the possible sequences are $\{ [0,0], [0,1] \}$.  For $n = 3$, the possible sequences are $\{ [0,0,0], [0,0,1], [0,0,2], [0,1,1], [0,1,2] \}$.  Let's let $f(n)$ denote the number of valid sequences of length $n$.  From these examples, it is clear that $f(1) = 1, f(2) = 2,$ and $f(3) = 5$.  We would ideally like to get a nice combinatoric expression for

### The 75th Annual Putnam Games

This past weekend I participated in the 75th annual Putnam exam. I really enjoyed this year's problem set and I thought the problems were challenging yet approachable. I submitted 5 problems worthy of submission, but I am not sure if some of my proofs are rigorous enough for full credit.  I've uploaded the problem set here  and my solutions here . I was a little disappointed to not see any "2014" problem this year. In the past, the problem setters have always included a problem that directly relates to the current year, but they didn't do that this year. There was an interesting game theory problem that made reference to the hunger games movie which was pretty fitting because in the second hunger games movie that just game out, Katniss and Peeta participate in the quarter quell (the 75th hunger games), and this was the 75th annual Putnam exam. While I did not have enough knowledge of fields to answer this question, I enjoyed the witty humor of the problem setters.

### Analyzing an Unfair Game In this blog post, I will present an interesting 2 player game and I will discuss the mathematics that I used to determine the expectations for each player. This game is a generalization of the Price is Right spin wheel, in which players take turns spinning the Big Wheel in an attempt to get a sum as close to 100 without going over. I generalize this by picking random numbers in the range $[0,1]$ instead of numbers from the discrete set ${5,10,...100}$. Here is the formal problem statement: Alice and Bob play a game where they try to get as close to $1$ as possible without going over. Whoever gets closer without going over wins, and Alice goes first. Alice repeatedly gets a random number from $[0,1]$ and adds it to her sum until she is satisfied with her current score or exceeds $1$ (if she exceeds $1$, she loses). Then Bob repeatedly picks random number until he either beats Alice's score or exceeds $1$. Assuming both players play optimally, what is the probability that Alic

### Solving Problems with Dynamic Programming Dynamic Programming is a programming technique used to solve large, complex problems that have overlapping sub-problems. It does this by computing each sub-problem only once, ensuring non-exponential behavior. It differs from memoization (no, that's not a typo) in that instead of computing the result of a function then storing it in a cache, it instead generates a certain result before calculating any other result that relies on it. Dynamic Programming problems often require a different way of thinking than typical problems. Most often, dynamic programming becomes useful when you want to reverse engineer a tree recursive function. By that I mean you want to start of with the base case(s), then use those to generate the next few cases, and repeat this process until all points of interest have been calculated. Most often, at least in imperative languages, these dynamic programming algorithms are iterative, meaning they don't have recursive calls. That being said, it's still

### Markov Chains and Baseball In this blog post, I will give some general background info about Markov Chains, a mathematical structure that arises in Probability theory. I was first introduced to Markov Chains last year and I found them extremely interesting. I found them particularly interesting because they combine ideas from linear algebra, graph theory, and probability theory. Markov chains have applications in many real world situations, including sabermetrics and stock market analysis. A Markov Chain can be thought of as a special type of graph or a non-deterministic finite automaton. Basically, that means that there are a set of states, and you can transition from a set of different states from any given state. The transitions are weighted by probability measures. There are lot's of interesting question you can ask about Markov chains - my favorite is the random walk type problems. Markov chains can be used to model a variety of real world situations, including baseball simulations, stock market behav

### Functional vs. Imperative Programming

The 2 biggest programming paradigms are functional and imperative, but they share very little in common. In this blog post, I will discuss the differences between the two as I understand them and talk about my experience with each. Functional programming languages are very mathematical - functions can be defined piece-wise, recursively, or in terms of other functions. They can also easily be combined forming composition of functions. Imperative languages use a slightly different approach - rather than telling the computer what something is, you must specify how to get it. The first functional programming language I learned was Racket, which is a similar to another functional programming language: Common Lisp. I always thought of Racket as a neat language with some nice abstractions but I always felt like it lacked some core functionality. Recently, however, my friend introduced me to Haskell, and I've been trying to pick it up.  Haskell is much more powerful than Racket, and it&#

### Weighing Post-College Decisions

As a Junior in college, I need to start considering what I want to do after graduation. The two possibilities are to work in the corporate world and do application development or something of that flavor, or go to graduate school and pursue higher education. In this blog post, I will discuss my current understanding of some of the differences between the two, and I will share my knowledge/experience on the best way to prepare for each while in college. Working and the Corporate world is completely different than going to graduate school and pursuing a career in academia. Real world jobs have some nice virtues, but academia does as well. In my time here as a student, I have been involved in a lot of academic research, which is a very important thing to have when applying to graduate school. I also had a summer internship at JP Morgan last summer. I have had some experience from both sides of the spectrum and they are completely different. While I'm still undecided on what I want t

### A Challenge for my Readers!

In this blog post, I present a very interesting math problem that I came up with while pondering random walk problems. You are walking along the x axis and you start at $x=0$. At each time step you move to $x+1$ with probability $\frac{1}{1+x}$ and to $x-1$ with probability $\frac{x}{x+1}$.  What is the expected number of steps until you return to $0$ for the first time? What makes this problem harder than a typical random walk problem is that the probability of moving to $x+1$ vs $x-1$ is not fixed -- it changes based on your position. That being said, the typical counting methods for solving problems of this type do not apply. There is a clever and fascinating solution that doesn't require too much advanced knowledge, but I will leave it to you to think about this problem.

### Thinking Like a { Computer Scientist, Mathematician }

As a Computer Science and Mathematics double major, a lot of the things I learn in my math classes I can apply in my computer science classes (and vice versa). But there's also a lot of material that I learn in math that's way different than anything I'd ever do in computer science (and vice versa). I've also met a lot of different people in each subject. In this post, I will talk about a recent experience I had when I posed the same question to math students and computer science students. Mathematicians and Computer Scientists think differently, and in some cases they approach problems differently. I will also talk about why some Mathematicians should broaden their horizons and explore the world of computing. Each week I send out weekly challenge problems on behalf of ACM (and Math Club for that matter). I usually think up and solve these problems myself so the answers don't necessarily exist out on the internet. For last weeks ACM weekly challenge, the problem

### A Fun Puzzle from Probability

Here is a problem that came up a few days ago and I'm still thinking about: There is an amoebae in a box. At each time step, it either multiplies in 2, multiplies in 3, stays the same, or dies - all with equal probability. What is the probability that eventually, all the amoebae die out? Show/Hide Solution Solution One can quickly see that the probability is at least $\frac{1}{4}$ because there is a $\frac{1}{4}$ chance of dying on the first time step. Similarly, you could die on the first time step ($\frac{1}{4}$), stay the same then die ($\frac{1}{4^2}$), etc. Thus, the probability of eventual extinction is at least $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{4^n}$. Unfortunately, this strategy leads to a dead end. Instead, I use a clever interpretation of the problem that leads to a very simple and elegant solution. My key insight came from seeing an infinite continued fraction problem, which uses a simple technique to define the value of the continued fraction in terms of itself. T

### Thought Experiment

If you could ask the universe any three yes/no questions, what would they be? I came up with this thought experiment last week while in my introduction to philosophy class. What questions would further our knowledge of science the most? Which questions would benefit society the most? What are the potential consequences of the answers? In this thought experiment, you can accept the answer to each question as an axiom of the universe. That is, you know the answer is a law of nature. Further, you can assume that a "quantum" answer (i.e., yes and no simultaneously) is not possible. The first question I would think to ask is Does God Exist?. Humans will never be able to prove or disprove the existence of God, so the answer would give information that we would not be able to find otherwise. The answer to such a question completely change society as we know it (assuming everybody on the planet accepted the answer). The second question I thought of was Are we alone in the Unive

### Simplifying the Expected Value Formula

Probability theory is by far my favorite field in mathematics. I am particularly interested in expected value problems over a discretized domain. I often find myself thinking up and solving expected value problems that may or may not have any actual relevance. After working on an expected value problem that I had thought up, I derived a very interesting and useful identity for computing the answer to expected value problems more easily in certain situations. My derivation is easiest to understand when the sample space is the set of natural numbers (i.e., $1, 2, 3, \dots$). In situations when the sample space of a random variable is the set of natural numbers, the expected value is defined by this formula: $$\mathbf{E}(X) = \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} k \cdot P(X = k) = P(X = 1) + 2 \cdot P(X = 2) + 3 \cdot P(X = 3) + \dots$$ In some cases, this summation may be difficult to evaluate directly. However, if you represent the sum in a special way, a simple but powerful simplification can